Surface Morphology and Structural Evolution of Magnetite-Based Iron Ore Fines During the Oxidation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Organisational units

External Organisational units

  • K1-MET GmbH; Stahlstraße 14; Linz, 4020, Austria
  • School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, Univ. Sci. Techn.
  • Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH
  • The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy
  • South Ural State University


The use of magnetite-based iron ore fines by means of fluidized bed technology has become a promising route to produce direct reduced iron. The significant influence of a prior oxidation treatment, which occurs in the preheating stage, on the subsequent fluidization and reduction behavior was observed in our previous study. As a result, it is important to investigate the oxidation of magnetite-based iron ore fines for an optimization of the proposed route. Three magnetite-based iron ore brands were analyzed. The oxidation characteristics are investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis. The surface morphology, structural evolution, and phase transformation were studied with a scanning electron microscope, an optical light microscope, and a high-temperature-X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), respectively. The three samples showed different oxidation capacity indexes (OCIs) but similar TG-DTG curves. The oxidation rate peaks at around 330 °C and 550 °C indicated the formation of γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3. The hematite phase shows a particular growth habit. The oxidation first occurs at the surface, forming gridlike hematite structures, and then extends to the inside, resulting in hematite needles. The specific surface area and pore volume decrease significantly due to the sintering effect during oxidation.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1644-1660
Number of pages17
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Mar 2022