Using Iron Ore Ultra-Fines for Hydrogen-Based Fluidized Bed Direct Reduction—A Mathematical Evaluation

Publikationen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelForschung(peer-reviewed)

Externe Organisationseinheiten

  • Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH
  • K1-MET GmbH, Linz


This mathematical evaluation focuses on iron ore ultra-fines for their use in a novel hydrogen-based fluidized bed direct reduction process. The benefits of such a process include reduced CO2 emissions and energy consumption per ton of product, lower operational and capital expenditure, and a higher oxide yield. Typical samples of iron ore ultra-fines, such as pellet feed, are given and classified for a fluidized bed. An operating field for a hydrogen-based fluidized bed direct reduction process using iron ore ultra-fines is shown in the fluidized state diagram following Reh’s approach and compared to other processes. The effects of the process conditions and the agglomeration phenomenon sticking were analyzed and evaluated with mathematical case studies. The agglomeration phenomenon sticking was identified as the most critical issue; thus, the dependencies of the fluid dynamics on the characteristic diameter were examined.


Fachzeitschrift Materials
StatusVeröffentlicht - 1 Juni 2022