Analysis of the Usability of Iron Ore Ultra-Fines for Hydrogen-Based Fluidized Bed Direct Reduction—A Review

Publikationen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikel(peer-reviewed)

Externe Organisationseinheiten

  • K1-MET GmbH, Linz
  • Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH


This review focuses on the usability of iron ore ultra-fines for hydrogen-based direct reduction. Such technology is driven by the need to lower CO2 emissions and energy consumption for the iron and steel industry. In addition, low operational and capital expenditures and a high oxide yield because of the direct use of ultra-fines can be highlighted. The classification of powders for a fluidized bed are reviewed. Fluid dynamics, such as minimum fluidization velocity, entrainment velocity and fluidized state diagrams are summarized and discussed regarding the processing of iron ore ultra-fines in a fluidized bed. The influence of the reduction process, especially the agglomeration phenomenon sticking, is evaluated. Thus, the sticking determining factors and the solutions to avoid sticking are reviewed and discussed. The essential theoretical considerations and process-relevant issues are provided for the usability of iron ore ultra-fines for hydrogen-based fluidized bed direct reduction.


Fachzeitschrift Materials
StatusVeröffentlicht - 6 Apr. 2022