Prediction of Sinter Chemical Composition Based on Ensemble Learning Algorithms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


  • Lele Niu
  • Zhengjian Liu
  • Jianliang Zhang
  • Qingke Sun
  • Jiabao Wang
  • Yaozu Wang

Organisational units

External Organisational units

  • School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, Univ. Sci. Techn.


Effective prediction of sinter chemical composition enables more timely capture of production abnormalities and reduces the time for process parameters correction, thus optimizing sintering as well as blast furnace production. In this study, two ensemble algorithms, Random Forest and XGBoost, are used to model and predict the sinter chemical composition. The prediction results show that both ensemble algorithms are able to achieve small Mean Square Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values with the chemical composition of the raw materials as training parameters, and except for FeO, the prediction hit rate of all other components was above 85%. There is almost no significant difference between the prediction results of the two ensemble algorithms. With the addition of sintering process parameters and fuel/flux parameters as training parameters, reductions in MAE and MSE as well as increases in prediction hit rate were achieved for each chemical composition. Finally, the trained Random Forest model with chemical composition combined with process parameters or fuel/flux parameters achieved prediction hit rate of 94.45%, 83.39%, 95.29%, 89.44%, 90.96%, 97.72%, 99.39%, and 90.35% for Fe, FeO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, basicity, MgO, and P, respectively.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1168-1179
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Sustainable Metallurgy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2023